Major Causes of Overpopulation in Nigeria. What is OverPopulation?
Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth. Overpopulation is caused by number of factors. Reduced mortality rate, better medical facilities, depletion of precious resources are few of the causes which results in overpopulation.
It is possible for a sparsely populated area to become densely populated if it is not able to sustain life.
Overpopulation is one the major problem in our society today. the main causes of Overpopulation is properly treated in this article. steps on how to stop this problem will also be treated. however, overpopulation means a condition in which the number of living organisms in a particular habitat exceeds the carrying capacity of their habitat.
The world population has crossed 8 billion and we are having to deal with the adverse effects of this excessive growth. Overpopulation leads to the following, scarcity of resources, shortage of food and economic inflation. Overpopulation is a critical problem, more serious than it seems to be, but then we must know the main causes of overpopulation in Nigeria.
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Major Causes or Effect of Overpopulation in Nigeria includes:
- Increased birth rate
- Reduced infant mortality
- Decreased death rate
- Lack of education
- Increased longevity
- Cultural influences
Brief Explanation on the Effect of Overpopulation in Nigeria
The fact that human beings have no season for child birth is also one of the causes of overpopulation in Nigeria . They can mate and have children any time of the year, unlike other animals whose mating season is restricted to only a particular period of the year. Also, developments in the medical field have increased the average lifespan of human beings, thereby boosting population growth. lets explain the major causes of overpopulation in Nigeria.
Increase in the Birth Rate:
Increase in the Birth Rate is major causes of overpopulation in the society.this is as aresult of advances in medicine, the average birth rate has gone up. Due to various fertility treatments available today, there are effective solutions to infertility problems, which increases chances of conception. Due to modern medicine, pregnancies are safer. In case of conception after a fertility treatment, there are chances of a multiple pregnancy, further contributing to increasing birth rates. In addition to this, there is a social pressure to have children. This further contributes to overpopulation. Early marriages also contribute to population growth as getting married at an early age increases the chances of having more children. And especially so with the uneducated class where family planning is not adopted.
Decrease in the Death Rate:
Reduced mortality rate is one of the causes of overpopulation. Due to medical advancements, many of the once incurable diseases have cures today. Owing to advances in both preventive and curative medicine, diseases have either been eradicated or have more effective treatments now. There are effective ways to control epidemics and there are better measures to treat critical health ailments, thus leading to a drop in death rates. Developments in medicine have led to reduced mortality and increase in the average life expectancy of humans. Infant mortality rates are very low and cases of deaths during childbirth are less frequent. Good prenatal care has improved the chances of survival for both the mother and the baby.
Lack of Education:
Illiteracy is another important factor that have contributed to causes of overpopulation. Those lacking education fail to understand the need to curb population growth. Modern methods of birth control and family planning don’t reach the illiterate sections of society. Furthermore, due to lack of awareness there is resistance in adopting such methods. The illiterate are unable to understand what impact overpopulation can have. The educated class can make more responsible decisions about marriage and childbirth. Thus education is an effective tool to curb overpopulation.
Cultural Influences also contributes to the main causes of overpopulation. Adopting birth control measures is considered taboo in certain cultures. Some cultures foster beliefs where marrying at a certain age or having a certain number of children is considered to be ideal. In some cultures male children are preferred. This indirectly forces couples to produce children till a child of the preferred gender is conceived. Plus, there is a pressure from the family and society to have children. Social norms influence decisions of starting and extending one’s family. In cultures where a woman’s role is considered to be that of a child-bearer, large families become the norm.
Migration also contributes to the causes of overpopulation. If the inhabitants of various countries migrate to a particular part of the world and settle in that region, the area has to face the negative effects of overpopulation. If the rates of emigration from and immigration to a country do not match, it results in increased population density in that country. The area becomes thickly populated. People inhabiting the area experience scarcity of resources. This leads to uneven distribution of natural resources which is a direct consequence of overpopulation. Though migration of people between regions does not affect the world population figure, it does lead to something that can qualify as localized overpopulation.
causes of overpopulation
it is important we take note of this factors mentioned above , to ensure economic growth.
Solutions to Overpopulation:
Better Education: One of the first measures is to implement policies reflecting social change. Educating the masses helps them understand the need to have one or two children at the most. Families that are facing a hard life and choose to have four or five children should be discouraged. Family planning and efficient birth control can help in women making their own reproductive choices. Open dialogue on abortion and voluntary sterilization should be seen when talking about overpopulation.
Making People Aware of Family Planning: As population of this world is growing at a rapid pace, raising awareness among people regarding family planning and letting them know about serious after effects of overpopulation can help curb population growth. One of the best way is to let them know about various safe sex techniques and contraceptives methods available to avoid any unwanted pregnancy.
Tax Benefits or Concessions: Government of various countries might have to come with various policies related to tax exemptions to curb overpopulation. One of them might be to waive of certain part of income tax or lowering rates of income tax for those married couples who have single or two children. As we humans are more inclined towards money, this may produce some positive results.
Knowledge of Sex Education: Imparting sex education to young kids at elementary level should be must. Most parents feel shy in discussing such things with their kids which result in their children going out and look out for such information on internet or discuss it with their peers. Mostly, the information is incomplete which results in sexually active teenagers unaware of contraceptives and embarrassed to seek information about same. It is therefore important for parents and teachers to shed their old inhibitions and make their kids or students aware of solid sex education.